Informations sur le verre


10 types de verrerie de bar-Verrerie incontournable en bar

10 types of Bar Glasswares-Must-have glassware in bar To choose glasses for the Bar Tips for Buying GlasswareWhen shopping for glasses, you will find a variety of designs within each style and this is half of the fun.Look for interesting features that match your bar's style.Don't be afraid to shop second-hand sources. You will find some of the best designs in vintage glassware.Stay away from the very thin glass. They will break easily and this applies to the stems as well. I have had the stem of a cheaply made margarita glass literally twist off while washing it. 1.The Cocktail (or Martini) Glass A Must-have GlassThe familiar conical shape of the cocktail glass makes most of us think of a Martini, and so it should. It is the most popular drink that is served in this style of glass and because of that, many people will call this a 'martini' glass.Use the Cocktail Glass ForCocktails between 3 and 6 ounces.Most often served 'up' without ice.The variety of martinis, many classic cocktails and almost any short drink.Cocktail Glass StyleCocktail glasses come in many different styles, including frosted, painted, and fun stem shapes. If I were a glass designer, this would be my favorite style to play with!Though it is now common to have stemless cocktail glasses (pictured on the right), the stem serves a purpose: it allows the drinker to hold the glass without warming the drink via body heat. This is essential to keeping these non-iced drinks colder for a longer period. 2.The highball and collins glasses  Distinguishing Highball and Collins GlassesThese two glasses hold around the same volume, between 8 and 16 ounces.The collins (left) tends to be taller and more narrow, more of a chimney shape.The highball (right) tends to be stouter and usually tops off at 10 ounces.The glass in the middle is an example of a hybrid of these two glasses: the same volume with a little detail in the style.A Must-have Glass.The highball (or hi-ball) glass is a style that every bar should have. The collins glass is not necessary, though convenient. The two can be used interchangeably.Use Highball and Collins Glasses ForThese tall glasses are typically used for 'tall' mixed drinks (or 'highballs') and filled with an abundance of ice.Quite often, the drinks are built directly in the glass by pouring the ingredients over top of the ice and stirring.The simplest of these drinks include a shot of liquor topped with fruit juices and/or sodas to fill the glass.Drinks That Use a Highball Glass,Popular Highballs,Bloody MaryZombie,Other tall drinks 3.The Old-Fashioned (or Rocks) Glass A Must-have GlassThe old-fashioned glass is a short tumbler that is also often called a "lowball" or a "rocks glass".Use an Old-Fashioned Glass ForThese glasses are typically used for short mixed drinks that are served with ice (aka 'on the rocks') though not always.Popular lowballs like the White Russian, Rusty Nail and, of course, the Old-Fashioned.Old-Fashioned Glass SizesOld-fashioned glasses hold between 6 and 8 ounces. They are also available as a double old-fashioned (left of the photo), holding up to 10 or 12 ounces.The smaller old-fashioned glasses can be used for serving a straight or neat pour of liquor, typically a dark spirit like whiskey.The doubled old-fashioned glass is ideal for serving either a mixed drink or straight pour of liquor with a single large ice cube or ice ball. 4.The Shot Glass The shot glass is a very recognizable glass in the bar. They can come in many styles, shapes and sizes and are fun to collect. Any shot glass can be used to hold straight shots and mixed shooters and it is always good to have quite a few around just in case some break.The average shot is 1 1/2 ounces while a 'short shot' or 'pony shot' is just 1 ounce.The Design of a Shot GlassThe typical shot glass is made of thicker glass, particularly on the base. This reinforcement is designed to prevent it from shattering when the drinker slams the glass onto the bar after downing the drink.Short Shot GlassesThe two glasses on the right are the typical style of shot glass. They are good for straight shots of liquor or shooters that are shaken and strained. Despite the size difference, these two glasses hold the same amount of liquor (I measured them). Glass design can be deceiving and this is something to be aware of in both shot glasses and beer mugs, particularly at the bar.Tall Shot GlassesThe taller, thinner shot glasses on the left are more of a specialty. Use these to show off those perfectly layered shots with well-defined colors.The tallest on the far left is called a caballito and is designed specifically for tequila. I enjoy using a flight (or line-up) of these for comparing tequilas. 5.The Margarita Glass The margarita glass is used primarily for serving margaritas, though those cocktails can also be served in a cocktail glass.Margarita Glass DesignThe double-bowl shape of the margarita glass is a fun and distinctive shape that works particularly well for frozen margaritas. The wide rim makes it easy to add a salt or sugar rim.Margarita Glass SizesMargarita glasses can come in a variety of sizes and can range anywhere from 6 to 20 ounces.The smaller glasses are nice for drinks with no ice.The medium glasses are good for frozen drinks.The large bowls are good for large frozen drinks served or those with a lot of ice.Some margarita bowls can get to ridiculous sizes, topping off at 60 ounces. These would only be good as a novelty to share with a table-full of friends (each with your own straw, of course). 6.The Champagne Glass If you enjoy a Champagne cocktail every once in a while, then a set of Champagne glasses would be a nice investment.They come in a variety of shapes. It is often best to purchase a set of 4 or 8 glasses, depending on the size of your average Champagne-worthy celebrations.Champagne Flute (left)This tall, thin glass has a tapered rim that is designed to keep the Champagne's bubbles in the glass longer.Flutes typically hold between 7 and 11 ounces.Flutes are perfect for the simple addition of a single berry garnish.The fizz fountain of the traditional Champagne Cocktail is spectacular in a flute.Champagne Tulip (middle) This elegantly styled glass has the longer stem and bowl of the flute, the difference is that the rim flares out instead of in. This design will not trap bubbles, but it is a nice option for mixing Champagne and other sparkling wines.Champagne Saucer (right)This is a more traditional glass design used to serve sparkling wines. It is a flatter, rounder bowl and holds just around 6-8 ounces.Saucers are nice for serving straight Champagne to many guests (filling well below the rim to avoid spills) because they will drink it rather quick.Use it to add an elegant twist to drinks that you would serve in a cocktail glass.Use it for a roaring '20's themed party.A perfect choice when you want to float a larger slice of fruit on top of the drink. 7.The Two Basic Wine Glasses Wine glasses could be the topic of a separate article. There are so many shapes available and many styles have been developed to showcase a particular style of wine.Two Basic Wine GlassesMost bartenders need to be concerned with:White Wine Glass: the taller, more open glasses (on the left).Red Wine Glass: the rounder, smaller bowl (on the right).A wine glass of any style is perfect for serving wine cocktails. Those with ice are often best in a white wine glass. 8.Beer Glasses, Mugs and Pints Just like wine, beer has its own list of glassware that can be used, these are just three examples. They can be used interchangeably and are good for mixing beer drinks.Pint Glass (left)Pints typically hold 16 ounces.Best when pulled straight from the freezer.This is also a mixing glass and can be used as a piece in a Boston shaker set.Buy Pint Glasses at AmazonPilsner Glass (middle)Pilsners typically hold between 10 and 14 ounces.Tthe unique fluted shape  (which can be more or less exaggerated) is used most often for light beers and the wider rim still allows for a good head.Beer Mug (right) Mugs are nice because you can hold your beer without warming it with your hands and they are also best when frosted.The volume of a beer mug will vary greatly. Many will hold between 10 and 14 ounces. A thicker base (such as the one in the photo) barely holding 10 ounces.You may see these deceptively smaller ones at bars because they allow for a shorter pour. If you don't care about draught beer, you will get more beer by going with a bottle. 9.Tall Specialty Cocktail Glasses Here we have a few tall specialty glasses that you will run into in cocktail recipes. Each has a specific style of drink which they are used for.While they are not called for as often as the previous glasses, they are useful to have around, particularly if you are fond of any of these cocktails.Irish Coffee Glass (left)This footed glass is used for hot drinks and, traditionally, for an Irish Coffee.It is a nicer way to present warm drinks than the average mug.Are made with heat-resistant glass.Typically hold between 8 and 10 ounces.Buy Irish Coffee Glasses at Amazon Hurricane Glass (middle)The distinct pear-shaped curve of this glass is reminiscent of vintage hurricane lamps, which gave it its name.It is used for the aptly named Hurricane Cocktail and often for Pina Coladas and other frozen drinks.Typically hold between 10 and 12 ounces.Buy Hurricane Glasses from AmazonBrandy Snifter (right)As the name implies, this glass is used for brandy, particularly sipping it straight. Though it is a very large glass, only a standard pour of around 2 ounces goes inside.The idea behind the snifter is to allow the drinker to enjoy all of the aspects of brandy: watch it swirl inside, notice its legs and color, take in the aromas trapped in the bowl and slowly take a sip.It is also used for a few simple brandy drinks, most notably the aromatic B&B.If you enjoy fine brandy, or any dark spirit for that matter, this will be an essential glass for you. 10.Short Specialty Cocktail Glasses You will probably not use these glasses often, but it is good to be aware of these three short specialty glasses.Sour Glass (left)Used for Whiskey Sours and other simple sour drinks, this little glass is made to enjoy small drinks as it holds just between 3 and 6 ounces.Cordial Glass (middle)These tiny glasses are a traditional way to sip cordials (or liqueurs) straight and are not very common today. They are dainty, holding just 2-3 ounces.These are particularly fun to collect on the vintage market because the styles varied greatly. I even have a miniature cocktail glass that is so very cute!Genever Tulip Glass (right)This glass is also used to sip cordials, but more specifically used to drink genever in true Dutch fashion. The custom goes: place the glass on the bar and fill all the way to the rim with ice-cold genever, then lean over and (without hands) take a long (often loud) sip off the top. It's quite fun!Note: Most tulips are clear glass as well; mine in the photo just happens to be black.

L'histoire du verre

The History of Glass From our earliest origins, man has been making use of glass. Historians have discovered that a form of natural glass - obsidian - formed for instance, within the mouth of a volcano as a result of the intense heat of an eruption melting sand - was first used by man as tips for spears. Archaeologists have found evidence of man-made glass which dates back to 4000 BC; this took the form of glazes used for coating stone beads. It was not until 1500 BC that the first hollow glass container was made by covering a sand core with a layer of molten glass. Glass blowing became the most common way to make glass containers from the First Century BC. However, the glass made during this time was highly coloured due to the impurities of the raw material. It was not until the First Century AD when colourless glass was produced and then coloured by the addition of colouring materials. The secret of glass making came to Britain with the Romans. However, the skills and technology required to make glass were closely guarded by the Romans and it was not until the Roman Empire disintegrated that skills for glass making spread throughout Europe and the Middle East. The Venetians, in particular, gained a reputation for technical skill and artistic ability in the making of glass bottles and a fair number of the city's craftsmen left Italy to set up glassworks throughout Europe. In Britain, there is evidence of a glass industry around Jarrow and Wearmouth dating back to 680 AD, while from the 13th Century, there is evidence of there having been a glass industry in the Weald and the afforested area of Surrey and Sussex around Chiddingford. A major milestone in the history of glass occurred with the invention of lead crystal glass by George Ravenscroft. He attempted to counter the effect of clouding that sometimes occurred in blown glass by introducing lead to the raw materials used in the process. The new glass he created was softer and easier to decorate and had a higher refractive index, adding to its brilliance and beauty, and it proved invaluable to the optical industry. It's thanks to Ravenscrofts invention that optical lenses, astronomical telescopes, microscopes and the like became possible. The modern glass industry only really started to develop in Britain after the repeal of the Excise Act in 1845 relieved the heavy taxation that had been enforced. Before that time, excise duties were placed on the amount of glass melted in a glasshouse and levied continuously from 1745 to 1845. Joseph Paxtons Crystal Palace at the Great Exhibition of 1851 marked the beginning of the discovery of glass as a building material. The revolutionary new building encouraged the use of glass in public, domestic and horticultural architecture. Glass manufacturing techniques also improved with the advancement of science and better technology. By 1887 glass making developed from traditional mouth blowing to a semi-automatic process when Ashley introduced a machine capable of producing 200 bottles per hour in Castleford, Yorkshire - more than three times quicker than the previous production methods. Twenty years later, in 1907, the first fully automated machine was developed in America by Michael Owens from major glass manufacturers Owens of Illinois, and used at its factory in Manchester, Illinois making 2,500 bottles per hour. Other developments followed rapidly, but it was not until the First World War, when Britain became cut off from essential glass suppliers that glass became part of the scientific sector. Up until then glass was seen as a craft rather than a precise science. Today, glass making is a modern, hi-tech industry operating in a fiercely competitive global market where quality, design and service levels are critical to maintaining market share. Modern glass plants are capable of making millions of glass containers a day in many different colours, but green, brown and clear remain the most popular. Few of us can imagine modern life without glass. It features in almost every aspect of our lives - in our homes, our cars and whenever we sit down to eat or drink. Glass packaging is used for many products, wines, spirits and beers all come in glass as do medicines and cosmetics not to mention numerous foodstuffs. With increasing consumer concern for the environment, glass has again come into its own proving to be an ideal material for recycling. Glass recycling is good news for the environment. It saves used glass containers being sent to landfill and less energy is needed to melt recycled glass than to melt down raw materials, thus saving energy. Recycling also reduces the need for raw materials to be quarried thus saving precious resources.

Comment souffler le verre?

  How to blow glass? Glassblowing is the art of creating glass sculptures by manipulating molten glass in a very hot furnace. It is a fun way to express your creativity and try working with a new material. The most common and accessible type of glassblowing is called offhand, where you heat and shape the glass on the end of a hollow pipe. Blowing glass requires working closely with heat and glass, so make sure you take all the necessary precautions before you roll, blow, and shape the glass. 1.Gathering the Glass on the Pipe Step1 Place the molten glass in the furnace. Use heat resistant gloves to place the molten glass in the furnace. The furnace should be heated to 2,000 °F (1,090 °C) to melt the glass.Heating and melting the glass will make it more malleable and easier to gather on the blowpipe. Step2 Put the pipe in furnace and gather the glass. Put one end of the pipe in the furnace, holding the pipe straight. You may need an assistant to open the door of the furnace for you so you can put in the pipe. Then, roll the pipe around in the furnace to gather the glass. You want to get as much of the glass on the pipe as you can so you have a lot to work with.You can try to open the furnace door yourself if you do not have someone to assist you, but it may be tricky to do if you are beginner glassblower. Step3 Roll the glass on the marver to form a cylinder shape. Carry the glass on the pipe to the marver. Roll it on the marver in a continuous, round motion. The marver will help to distribute the heat on the glass evenly and allow you to shape the glass into a cylinder that is symmetrical. Step4 Put the glass in the crucible, or glory hole, and turn it several times. Roll the glass in the heat of the glory hole so it stays hot. This will ensure it does not become too hard or tough for blowing. Step5 Dip the glass into crushed colored glass to add color. If you want your blown glass piece to have flecks of color in it, carefully dip it in a steel bowl of crushed glass. Add one layer of crushed glass to each side of the rounded glass by dipping it once in each color.Once you’ve dipped the glass, put it back in the crucible and turn it several times so the crushed glass melts. Step6 Roll it on the marver again. Try to get it to form the shape of a bullet. Keep the sides even and rounded so the glass is easier to blow. 2.Blowing the Glass Step1 Place the pipe on a stand. Use a steel stand that can hold the pipe securely. This will make blowing into the pipe easier.If you do not have access to a stand, you can blow the pipe by holding it just above the marver. However, it may be tricky for you to hold the pipe and blow into it at the same time, especially if you are a beginner. Step2 Blow into the the pipe and roll it at the same time. Let out deep breaths into the pipe to blow air into the glass. Turn the pipe as you blow into it so the air is evenly dispersed. Blow into the glass continuously with even breathes for 10-15 seconds.Do not blow into the glass for too long, as you do not want it to become too cool or lose too much heat. Blow into it for 10-15 second intervals so it stays hot. Step3 Return the glass back to the crucible to keep it hot. Turn pipe several times as the glass heats up in the crucible. Step4 Repeat the process until the glass is the size you want. Continue blowing into the end of the pipe to expand the glass. Always turn it as you blow. Then, return it to the crucible and turn it several times. Blow and heat the glass until you have blown the glass to the size and shape you want. 3.Cooling the Glass Step1 Have an assistant cut the bottom of the blown glass with steel tweezers. The assistant will run the tweezers, called jacks, around the bottom of the blown glass as you turn the pipe. This will help to cut the bottom and loosen the glass so it can come off. Step2 Tap the pipe to remove the blown glass. Use a wooden block to hit the pipe once so the blown glass comes off the pipe where the glass has been cut. Make sure your assistant is ready, wearing heat resistant gloves, to catch the blown glass when it comes off the pipe.Try to hit the pipe only once with a hard and firm whack. Doing it more than once can cause the blown glass to crack or break. Step3 Transfer the blown glass to an annealing oven. The annealing oven should be kept at 960 °F (516 °C). Wearing heat resistant gloves, put the blown glass in the oven. The oven should then be cooled down over 14 hours to room temperature. The slow cool down period will prevent the blown glass from cracking or breaking. Step4 Remove any sharp edges on the finished piece. Take the blown glass out of the annealing oven after 14 hours. Inspect it for any sharp edges, especially on the bottom. Use a grinding block to carefully smooth them out.

Quelles sont les différences entre le borosilicate et le verre pyrex?

What are the diferences between borosilicate and pyrex glass? Pyrex is a trademark for the particular glassware items made using borosilicate glass. Borosilicate glass Is composed of at least 5% oxide of boron and other things including silica. Labware benefited from this heat resistant property (1933) and Pyrex expanded the use of borosilicate glass to cookware.I’m not sure of the composition of other glass ovenware such as Corning and Anchor Hocking, but I would venture a guess that they were also manufactured with borosilicate glass as an ingredient. The use of borosilicate glass in cookware does not mean you can put it directly on a heat source, but a room temperature Pyrex dish can handle any oven duties you ask of it. When I have time I’ll write down my “Ode to Pyrex” but I’m ignoring the kitchen cleanup just to finish my own meal.

Pourquoi nous aimons le verre borosilicaté?

Why We Love Borosilicate Glass? Borosilicate glass has been a preferred material of construction for virtually all modern laboratory glassware and glass process equipment for decades, with wide usage throughout the chemical and pharmaceutical industries.  Its special properties of chemical and thermal resistances make it truly an exceptional glass with unique characteristics that distinguish it from other materials of construction.  But how is it possible to feel warm and fuzzy about glass?  Okay, maybe “love” is a bit too strong of a term to use, but we really, really like it and think you’ll find it pretty useful too. But before we get ahead of ourselves let’s take a step back for a moment and enroll in a speed course about Borosilicate Glass 101 (or technical speaking Borosilicate Glass 3.3).  What is borosilicate glass and what makes it different from other types of glass?  Common glass, such as window panes and every day kitchen drinking glasses, is typically a silicate glass that consists of sand, sodium-carbonate and limestone.  The addition of boric oxide with silica is what differentiates borosilicate glass.  The following chart details the chemical composition of QVF borosilicate glass 3.3: The purpose of adding boric oxide is to create a less dense product with a higher melting point.  The high temperature allowance and superior durability makes borosilicate glass useful for a variety of applications beyond process plants and pipeline including cookware, microscope and telescope lenses, stage lights, guitar slides, and art construction.When it comes to chemical laboratory equipment and process plant components, the 8 major benefits that will have you loving borosilicate glass are: 1. Optical ClarityIt’s clear to see why glass is a good solution when it comes to visibility (how could I resist this pun).  Compared to the array of plastics, metals and other materials of construction, glass provides a smooth surface that offers an unobstructed view of what is going on inside the equipment, enhancing the level of observation in any process.  There is a slight decrease in transparency with the addition of Sectrans coating, an optional covering to the glass surface added for its protective properties against scratches, blows and splintering.   2. CleanabilitySome materials of construction can pose housekeeping issues when it comes to ease of cleaning.  Not glass!  The anti-stick, nonporous surface makes borosilicate glass a popular choice for GMP compliant applications.  And its transparency allows you to see when equipment needs to be cleaned without the need for interrupting the process and performing an internal inspection. 3. Compact DesignCompared to systems built using alternative materials of construction, glass components are much more compact making a glass system significantly smaller.  This is especially beneficial in facilities that are facing space constraints as well as work areas where headroom can become an issue.  The compact arrangement can also make shipping, delivery, and installat 4. Corrosion ResistanceSimilar to the properties of glass-lined steel, glass equipment provides unsurpassed corrosion resistance  to water, neutral and acidic solutions, concentrated acids and acid mixtures, and to chlorine, bromine, iodine and organic substances. Its resistance to chemical attack is superior to that of most metals and other materials, even during prolonged periods of exposure and at temperatures above 100 °C.  There are only a few chemicals which can cause noticeable corrosion of the glass surface - hydrofluoric acid, concentrated phosphoric acid and strong caustic solutions at elevated temperatures. However, at ambient temperatures caustic solutions up to 30% concentration can be handled by borosilicate glass without difficulty. 5. Temperature RangeBorosilicate glass’ strong resistance to temperature makes it desirable in chemical and pharmaceutical processes.  The maximum permissible operating temperature for QVF borosilicate glass is 200°C (due to limiting factors such as PTFE gaskets). Above a temperature of 525°C the glass begins to soften and above a temperature of 860°C it changes to the liquid state.  Conversely, it can be cooled down to the maximum possible negative temperature, but is generally recommended for use down to – 80°C.  An additional benefit within temperature allowance is the ability for borosilicate glass to be exposed to two different temperatures at the same time (though for safety reasons it is recommended that temperature difference does not exceed 100 K). 6. Structural Integrity due to Low Thermal ExpansionDirectly related to the large temperature differential comes the benefit of low thermal expansion.  Because borosilicate glass doesn’t expand like ordinary glass, there is a smoother transition between temperatures as well as the ability to withstand different temperatures at the same time.  Borosilicate glass has an extremely low coefficient of linear expansion (3.3 x 10–6 K–1) as a result of its low thermal expansion.   Additionally, the low thermal expansion coefficient eliminates the need for expensive measures to compensate for thermal expansion resulting from changes in temperature. This becomes especially significant in the layout of long runs of glass pipeline, ensuring a high level of structural integrity.  For this reason, borosilicate glass is an approved and proven material in the construction of pressure equipment. 7.  AffordabilityCompared to other materials of construction that offer similar properties such as corrosion resistance, glass is relatively economical to produce.  When compared to the other options such as quartz, glass is an extremely affordable solution.  Its sustainability is an additional factor that adds to its affordability; with proper maintenance and care, your glass equipment can have a long life. 8. Inert BehaviorBecause there is no interaction or ion exchange between the process media and glass, there is no catalytic effect.  The inertness of borosilicate glass also means it is nonflammable and poses no environmental risk.  Due to the inert behavior of QVF glass there is no smell or taste alterations and can therefore be used in an almost unrestricted way in pharmaceutical applications and in the food and beverage industry.  Just because glass can break when dropped or mishandled does not mean it is a weaker material of construction.  Glass components have proven to be durable and reliable over many years of operation when installed and handled correctly.  Here’s what we love about borosilicate glass - it’s clear, easy to clean, inert, economical, chemical and corrosion resistant and is a thermal champion.  From laboratory/research and development up to full production, glass components and systems are available in a wide range of sizes and designs to build a custom solution based on the volume of your operation.  These systems include (but are not limited to) reaction, distillation, extraction, evaporation, cryogenic and absorption systems.  

Comment organiser une dégustation de vin?

Comment organiser une dégustation de vin? Un homme très sage (William Shakespeare) a écrit: «... un bon vin, une bonne compagnie, un bon accueil, peuvent faire de bonnes personnes.» Apprécier le vin avec des amis est l'une de nos choses préférées à faire. Mais plutôt que d'aller dans un restaurant chic pour siroter et goûter, nous préférons les dégustations dans le confort de notre propre maison, où les recharges et les collations sont à portée de main. Et comme le prouvent ces idées de dégustation de vins, vous n'avez pas besoin d'être sommelier pour réussir. 1.Planner un menu dégustation avec un thème Le monde du vin est si vaste que le fait de restreindre vos recherches rend le processus de sélection moins intimidant. Commencez avec votre saison actuelle à l'esprit (les vins légers sont meilleurs pour l'été, les variétés plus lourdes en hiver), puis envisagez d'acheter cinq ou six variétés en fonction de leur pays ou région d'origine. Assurez-vous de faire le plein à deux de chaque sélection, un pour la dégustation, un pour boire plus tard. Autres idées de menu: Demandez aux invités d'apporter une bouteille de leur favori de tous les temps ou faire une dégustation à l'aveugle (cacher des bouteilles à des prix différents dans des sacs en papier brun pour deviner les prix et les variétés). Visez simplement des vins avec un mélange de saveurs et de millésimes afin qu'il y en ait pour tous les goûts et que vous les serviez du plus léger au plus foncé. 2.Stock sur les verres et les accessoires de bar Il y a une raison pour laquelle il existe des verres de vin blanc et rouge. Les grands rouges vifs ont besoin de plus grands verres pour que leurs arômes et leurs saveurs aient de la place. Achetez des verres à pied que vous n'avez pas déjà, ainsi que des accessoires pour vous aider à servir. Vous aurez besoin d'un ouvre-porte fiable, des bouchons pour enregistrer ce que vous ne buvez pas, et un seau pour le dumping. Utilisez un ensemble d'écrivains en verre à vin ou des charmes pour aider les clients à suivre leur verre, et envisager de prendre un aérateur si vous servez du vin rouge. 3.Faites une playlist pour créer l'ambiance Votre ambiance de dégustation de vin offrira un point de départ. Par exemple, une soirée d'été blanc / rosé appelle à des confitures optimistes, tandis que les journées d'automne vif se marient mieux avec le pinot noir et des airs plus soul. Et si vous avez sélectionné des variétés d'une certaine région comme l'Espagne, ajoutez des chansons espagnoles au mélange. 4.Serve des collations savoureuses faciles à manger Avec votre menu de vin à l'esprit, magasinez pour les petites bouchées que les invités peuvent brouter toute la nuit. Si vous vous sentez à la hauteur de la tâche, faites des recherches sur les accords mets et vins et planifiez un menu autour de cela. Les vins blancs avec l'acidité vont bien avec les fruits de mer et les bonbons, tandis que les grands rouges gras se marient bien avec la nourriture savoureuse. Ou il y a toujours l'option sans échec: un plat de service rempli de viandes séchées, d'olives et de fromage, ainsi que de simples craquelins ou du pain pour nettoyer la palette. Ne pas oublier un pichet d'eau et séparer les verres d'eau. Donner aux gens un moyen d'écrire leurs favoris Quand un vin a des notes de cannelle et de cuir et de belles «jambes», certains invités peuvent vouloir s'en souvenir pour plus tard. Ramassez des blocs-notes dégustation dans une boutique de cadeaux ou tout simplement définir un stylos et du papier afin qu'ils puissent gribouiller tout en sirotant.

Comment faire du verre? 9 étapes pour faire du verre au charbon de bois barbecue

How to make glass?9 steps to make glass by charcoal barbecue Step1 Prepare a makeshift furnace from a charcoal barbecue grill. This method uses the heat generated by a large charcoal fire to melt silica sand into glass. The materials used are relatively cheap and common - theoretically, all you'll need is a short trip to the hardware store to be ready to make your own glass. Use a large charcoal barbecue grill - standard-size "dome" models work well. Use the thickest, sturdiest grill available. Most charcoal grills will have a vent on the bottom - open this vent.Even at the extremely hot temperatures reached in this method, it can be difficult to melt silica sand in a grill. Add a small quantity (about 1/3 to 1/4 of your sand's volume) of laundry soda, lime, and/or borax to your sand before you begin. These additives lower the sand's melting temperature.If you're going to blow your glass, have a long, hollow, metal tube handy. If you're going to pour it into a mold, prepare your mold beforehand. You want a mold that won't burn or melt from the heat of molten glass - graphite works well. Step2 Know the dangers of this method. This method will push a conventional barbecue past its normal temperature limits - so hot that it's even possible to melt the grill itself. This method can cause severe injury or death if it's attempted recklessly. Proceed with caution. Have a large quantity of dirt or sand or a fire extinguisher rated for high temperatures on hand to smother the fire if needed. Step3 Take every possible precaution to protect yourself and your property from the high heat. Attempt this method on a concrete surface outdoors with plenty of space. Don't use any irreplaceable equipment. Stand clear of the grill while you're heating the glass. You should also wear as much of protective clothing as possible, including:Heavy duty oven gloves or mittsA welder's maskA heavy duty apronHeat-resistant clothing Step4 Get a shop vacuum with a long hose attachment. Using duct tape or another method, angle its hose so that it is blowing directly into the bottom vent without touching the grill's main body. You may want to fasten the hose to one of the grill's legs or wheels. Keep the main vacuum unit as far away from the grill as possible.Make sure the hose is secure and will not move - if it comes loose while you're making your glass, you should not approach the grill if it's extremely hot.Turn the vacuum on to test your hose positioning. An accurate hose will blow directly into the vent. Step5 Line the inside of your grill with charcoal. Use more charcoal than you would for grilling meat. Successful results have been achieved by filling the grill nearly to the brim.[3] Place a cast-iron pot or crucible containing your sand in the center of the grill, surrounded by charcoal.Hardwood (or "lump") charcoal burns hotter and quicker than briquette charcoal, making it a better choice if it's available. Step6 Light the charcoal. Consult the charcoal's packaging to know whether your charcoal can be lit directly or whether it requires lighter fluid. Allow the flames to spread evenly. Step7 Wait for the charcoal to get hot. When the charcoals are grayish and emanating an orange glow, they're ready. You should be able to feel the heat from simply standing near the grill. Step8 Turn the shop vac on to introduce air to the charcoal. Charcoal fed with air from the bottom can burn extremely hot (up to 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Beware - large flame-ups may occur.If you're still not able to reach high enough temperatures, experiment with replacing the lid while introducing air through the vent. Step9 When your glass is molten, very carefully use metal implements to remove and shape it. Because of the low temperature of the grill method, the molten glass may be stiffer and harder to work than glass from a kiln. Shape it with a tube, mold, or other tools as you normally would.

Comment faire du verre? -9 étapes pour faire du verre au four ou au four

9 steps to make glass Step1 Obtain silica sand. Also called quartz sand, silica sand is the primary ingredient in making glass. Glass without iron impurities is sought for clear glass pieces, as the iron will cause the glass to appear greenish when present.Wear a face mask if handling extremely fine-grain silica sand. If inhaled, it can irritate the throat and lungs.Silica sand is available from online retailers. It is fairly cheap - small quantities shouldn't cost more than 20 dollars. If you want to operate on an industrial scale, specialty retailers can offer competitive rates on large orders - sometimes lower than $100 per ton.If it is not possible to find sand sufficiently free of iron impurities, their tinting effect can be countered by adding small amounts of manganese dioxide. Or, if you want greenish glass, leave the iron in! Step2 Add sodium carbonate and calcium oxide to the sand. Sodium carbonate (commonly called washing soda) lowers the temperature necessary to make glass commercially. However, it permits water to pass through the glass, so calcium oxide, or lime, is added to negate this property. Oxides of magnesium and/or aluminum may also be added to make the glass more durable. Generally, these additives take up no more than 26 to 30 percent of the glass mixture. Step3 Add other chemicals, depending on the glass's intended purpose. The most common addition for decorative glass is lead oxide, which provides the sparkle in crystal glassware, as well as the softness to make it easier to cut and also lowers the melting point. Eyeglass lenses may contain lanthanum oxide because of its refractive properties, while iron helps glass absorb heat.Lead crystal can contain up to 33 percent lead oxide; however, the more lead oxide, the more skill required to shape the molten glass, so many lead crystal makers opt for less lead content. Step4 Add chemicals to produce a desired color in the glass, if any. As noted above, iron impurities in quartz sand make glass made with it appear greenish, so iron oxide is added to increase the greenish tint, as is copper oxide. Sulfur compounds produce a yellowish, amber, brownish or even blackish tint, depending on how much carbon or iron is also added to the mixture. Step5 Place the mixture in a good heat-resistant crucible or holder. The container should be able to withstand the extremely high temperatures within the kiln - depending on your additives, your glass mixture may melt at a range of temperatures between 1,500 and 2,500 degrees Celsius. Your container should also be easily grasped with metal hooks and poles. Step6 Melt the mixture into a liquid. For commercial silica glass, this is done in a gas-fired furnace, while specialty glasses may be created using an electric melter, pot furnace or kiln.Quartz sand without additives becomes glass at a temperature of 2,300 degrees Celsius (4,172 degrees Fahrenheit). Adding sodium carbonate (soda) reduces the temperature needed to make glass to 1,500 degrees Celsius (2,732 degrees Fahrenheit). Step7 Homogenize and remove bubbles from the molten glass. This means stirring the mixture to a consistent thickness and adding chemicals such as sodium sulfate, sodium chloride or antimony oxide. Step8 Shape the molten glass. Shaping the glass can be done in one of several ways:The molten glass can be poured into a mold and let cool. This method was used by the Egyptians, and it is also how many lenses are created today.A large amount of molten glass can be gathered at the end of a hollow tube, which is then blown into while the tube is turned. The glass is shaped by the air entering the tube, gravity pulling on the molten glass and whatever tools the glassblower uses to work the molten glass.The molten glass can be poured into a bath of molten tin for support and blasted with pressurized nitrogen to shape and polish it. Glass made by this method is called float glass, and it is how glass panes have been made since the 1950s. Step9 Slowly cool the glass in a kiln. This process is called annealing, and it removes any stress points that may have formed in the glass during cooling. Glass that has not been annealed is significantly weaker. Once this process is completed, the glass can then be coated, laminated or otherwise treated to improve its strength and durability.The precise temperature for annealing can vary based on the precise composition of the glass from as low as 750 degrees Fahrenheit to as high as 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. The rate at which the glass must cool may also change - generally, larger pieces of glass must cool more slowly than smaller pieces. Research proper annealing methods before beginning.A related process is tempering, in which shaped and polished glass is placed in an oven heated to at least 600 degrees Celsius (1,112 degrees Fahrenheit) and then quick-cooled ("quenched") with blasts of air at high pressure. Annealed glass breaks into shards at 6,000 pounds per square inch (psi), while tempered glass breaks into small pieces at no less than 10,000 psi and usually at around 24,000 psi.

Types de tasse ou de verre

Types de tasse ou de verre 1. bécher britannique une tasse en plastique avec des côtés droits utilisés pour boire 2.chalice une grande tasse de vin, en particulier celle utilisée lors de la cérémonie chrétienne de la Sainte Communion 3.cup un petit récipient rond pour une boisson, généralement avec une poignée 4.flute un grand verre étroit, surtout un pour boire du champagne 5. verre un petit récipient en verre utilisé pour boire 6.goblet un grand verre de vin avec une tige haute une tasse en métal ou en verre utilisée dans le passé pour boire du vin 7.mug une tasse avec des côtés droits et aucune soucoupe, utilisée principalement pour les boissons chaudes un grand verre avec une poignée utilisée pour boire de la bière 8.schooner américain un grand verre de bière britannique un grand verre de sherry (= un type de vin fort) 9.snifter américain un verre en forme de bol utilisé pour boire du brandy 10.stein une grande tasse de bière, souvent avec un couvercle 11.stem la longue partie mince d'un verre à vin qui relie le bol à la base 12.tankard une grande tasse en métal ou en verre pour boire de la bière avec une poignée et parfois avec un couvercle 13.teacup une tasse pour boire du thé 14.tumbler un verre à boire sans poignée ni tige 15. verre de vin un verre avec une tige mince et une base, utilisé pour boire du vin

Le verre de borosilicate est-il toxique?

Le verre de borosilicate est-il toxique? Le verre borosilicaté a un point de fusion de 1648 ° C, donc rien ne se passera à sa composition lorsqu'il est chauffé à seulement 210 ° C. Le verre borosilicaté n'est pas toxique, il est fortement utilisé dans les ustensiles de cuisine et dans les verreries de laboratoire. Le chauffer de la manière que vous décrivez ne causera pas de mauvais sous-produits. D'autre part, la fumée de tabac est très toxique.

Quelles sont les propriétés du verre borosilicaté?

Quelles sont les propriétés du verre borosilicaté? Métrique NOUS Coefficient de thermique linéaire moyenne 3,3 · 10-6 K-1 3,3 · 10-6 K-1 expansion a acc. selon DIN ISO 7991 (20 ° C, 300 ° C) (68 ° F; 572 ° F) Température de transformation Tg 525 ° C 977 ° F Densité r à 25 ° C 2,23 g · cm-3 139,2 lb · pi-3 Module d'élasticité E (module d'Young) 63 · 103 N · mm-2 91 · 105 lb · in-2 (psi) Le coefficient de Poisson m 0,20 0,20 Conductivité thermique lw à 90 ° C 1,2 W · m-1 · K-1 0,69 Btu · h -1 -1 pi-1 · ° F-1 Indice de réfraction (l = 587,6 nm) sd 1,473 1,473 Coefficient de contrainte-optique (DIN 52 314) K 4,0 · 10-6 mm2 · N -1 4,0 · 10-6 mm2 · N-1 Composition chimique SiO2 B2O3 Na2O + K2O Al2O3 81 13 4 2 Résistance chimique Classe hydrolytique (DIN ISO 719) HGB 1 Classe d'acide (DIN 12116) Classe S 1 Classe d'alcali (DIN ISO 695) Classe A 2

Quelle est la différence? Verre borosilicaté vs verre Soda Lime vs Pyrex

Beaucoup de verrerie de laboratoire indique le type de verre dont elle est faite - Pyrex, verre borosilicaté ou chaux sodée. Quelle est la différence entre ces types de verre? Différents types de verre ont des compositions chimiques différentes, ce qui signifie que le verre borosilicaté et le Pyrex sont mieux adaptés au chauffage. Le verre borosilicaté a une porportion plus élevée de dioxyde de silicium que le verre sodocalcique, comme indiqué dans le tableau ci-dessous; Cette différence signifie que le verre borosilicaté ne se dilate pas autant lors du chauffage, il est donc moins susceptible de se briser lorsqu'il est chauffé. Le pyrex est un mélange particulier de verre borosilicaté, avec une tolérance au chauffage particulièrement élevée. Le verre sodocalcique est parfois utilisé pour la verrerie qui n'est pas susceptible d'être chauffée directement et fortement, par exemple des boîtes de Pétri ou des cuves de chromatographie TLC. Le verre borosilicaté ou le pyrex est généralement utilisé pour la verrerie qui peut être chauffée directement, comme les béchers ou les flacons bouilleurs.

Quels sont les avantages du verre borosilicaté?

Quels sont les avantages du verre borosilicaté? Vous êtes-vous déjà demandé pourquoi les ustensiles de cuisson en verre peuvent résister à des températures de 450 degrés sans craquer ou se briser, alors que le verre ordinaire peut soudainement se briser en un million de pièces tranchantes avec un changement brusque de température? La réponse réside dans le type de verre utilisé. Bien que le verre ordinaire soit dur, il est également extrêmement fragile et moins tolérant aux changements soudains de température. Mais il existe d'autres types spécialisés qui viennent avec des propriétés considérablement améliorées (pas tout le verre est le même, croyez-le ou non). Un type particulier qui se distingue et est réputé pour sa qualité et sa sécurité exceptionnelles est le verre borosilicaté. Alors, qu'est-ce qui rend la verrerie borosilicate si unique? L'oxyde borique merveilleux (yay, science) fait toute la différence Contrairement au verre ordinaire, qui est composé de dioxyde de silicium, d'oxyde de sodium et d'oxyde de calcium ou, pour simplifier, de silice, de soude et de chaux, la composition de verre borosilicaté comprend également au moins 5% d'oxyde borique. Cet ingrédient spécial a d'abord été ajouté au mélange de verre traditionnel par le verrier allemand Otto Schott à la fin du 19ème siècle. Ce faisant, il produisit ce que l'on appela le verre borosilicaté, ou «boro», comme on l'appelle souvent, remarquable pour sa grande tolérance à la chaleur et sa résistance extrême aux changements de température sévères. Des tubes à essai au stockage des déchets nucléaires en passant par ... les dernières grandes bouteilles d'eau en verre Sans cette invention monumentale et ses propriétés remarquables, nous n'apprécierions pas les instruments d'éclairage de scène haut de gamme d'aujourd'hui, allant des projecteurs et des lumières LED aux stroboscopes. Notre batterie de cuisine continuerait à se fissurer et à se briser, et l'équipement de laboratoire scientifique commun tel que les barres d'agitation, les béchers et les tubes à essai deviendrait gravement sensible à la corrosion chimique. Telle est la durabilité de cette verrerie qu'elle est même utilisée pour le stockage des déchets nucléaires! Du congélateur au four et au dos - sans une seule fissure Le verre borosilicaté a d'excellentes qualités thermiques, car il ne se dilate pas comme le verre ordinaire. Grâce à son faible coefficient de dilatation, il présente une résistance supérieure aux chocs thermiques. En d'autres termes, il peut gérer de brusques changements de température - disons, passez du congélateur au four et vice versa, et restez incassable. Il peut résister à des accidents qui casseraient presque n'importe quel autre type de verrerie. Dans de rares cas, lorsqu'il se casse, ce qui ne se produit que lorsqu'il est soumis à des fluctuations de température extrêmement radicales, il est plus susceptible de se fissurer que de se briser. Et pour être juste, il est beaucoup plus sûr de manipuler des morceaux plus gros que de nettoyer des éclats de verre éparpillés partout sur votre sol. Résistance à la chaleur - Ce type de verre a également un point de fusion plus élevé, ce qui le rend plus résistant à la chaleur que le verre ordinaire. En raison de son faible coefficient de dilatation thermique, il est capable de rester à la fois clair et fort même lorsqu'il est exposé à des températures extrêmement élevées. Il résiste à une température de fonctionnement de 515 degrés Fahrenheit et ne fond pas jusqu'à 550 degrés. Verrerie de laboratoire Borosilicate Durabilité chimique - Ce verre est également connu pour sa résistance chimique extrêmement élevée. Il résiste à la corrosion chimique, ce qui le rend parfaitement adapté aux expériences en laboratoire. Le verre borosilicaté gère même les produits chimiques les plus volatils. L'impressionnante propriété de ce verre lui permet de rester dans un environnement corrosif pendant des millions d'années et d'être encore intact! "Boro" est votre matériel de référence Bien que les températures requises pour la production de borosilicate soient significativement plus élevées que celles utilisées pour la fabrication régulière de verre, elles sont encore économiques et relativement peu coûteuses à produire. Comme déjà mentionné, grâce à sa durabilité, sa résistance à la chaleur et son prix abordable, le borosilicate a été le matériau de choix pour une variété d'applications technologiques, allant des appareils scientifiques aux ustensiles de cuisine ordinaires. Ainsi, la prochaine fois que vous entrerez dans la cuisine, portez une attention particulière à votre batterie de cuisine. Il doit y avoir au moins un moule à gâteau, une cocotte ou une tasse à mesurer en borosilicate; celui qui a été à votre humble service pendant de nombreuses années fidèles. Vous ne pouvez pas obtenir assez de ce matériel presque invincible? Envisagez d'ajouter une bouteille d'eau en verre borosilicaté réutilisable à votre collection «boro» super forte. Ce récipient en verre résistant aux rayures, aux chocs et aux taches est non poreux, durable et écologique. Obtenez ce produit en verre magnifiquement conçu, remplissez-le avec de l'eau du robinet et augmentez-le au monde!

Quelle est la différence entre une carafe de café thermique et une carafe de café en verre?

Quelle est la différence entre une carafe de café thermique et une carafe de café en verre? Lorsque vous achetez une cafetière automatique, vous devez choisir entre deux types de carafes. La carafe en verre de verre a été l'un des types les plus communs associés aux cafetières. D'autre part, vous verrez maintenant de nombreuses cafetières qui comportent des carafes thermiques, qui ne sont pas transparentes, et sont généralement faites de métal. Est-ce que l'un est meilleur que l'autre? Cela dépend vraiment de vos besoins. Les cafetières avec une carafe en verre sont parfaites pour beaucoup de gens. Ils vous permettent de savoir combien de café est dans le pot afin que vous puissiez savoir quand faire un nouveau pot. Ils sont souvent marqués avec des niveaux de tasse, que vous pouvez utiliser si vous voulez faire une quantité spécifique de café pour commencer. Vous pouvez utiliser ces marques pour déterminer la quantité d'eau à ajouter à la cafetière. Un autre avantage de la carafe en verre est que de nombreux modèles sont lavables au lave-vaisselle, ce qui vous permet de les nettoyer facilement. La carafe de café thermique a un couvercle que vous pouvez fermer, et parce qu'ils sont généralement faits de métal comme l'acier inoxydable, vous ne pouvez pas voir combien de café est dans le pot, ou l'utiliser pour mesurer avec précision les tasses que vous souhaitez faire. Le gros avantage de ce type de pot est que lorsqu'il est utilisé correctement, il peut garder le café au chaud pendant une longue période sans chaleur supplémentaire. Si vous aimez faire un pot le matin et le boire tout au long de la journée, vous aurez un café bien meilleur avec une carafe de café thermique. Avec les carafes en verre, vous devez généralement garder le café au chaud en le gardant sur une assiette chauffée. Carafes thermiques manquent cette option. Le problème avec le café réchauffé est qu'il a tendance à devenir plus fort et plus amer dans le goût. Le café qui reste sur la chaleur aura généralement un goût moche dans une heure ou deux, et si vous éteignez la chaleur, le café deviendra très froid rapidement. Si vous ne faites que du café occasionnellement, la carafe en verre peut être un meilleur choix. Bien que cela puisse varier, les cafetières avec une carafe en verre sont généralement moins chers. D'un autre côté, si vous aimez boire beaucoup de café, par exemple en sirotant un long week-end, la carafe thermique vous permettra d'économiser de l'argent à long terme, car vous n'aurez pas à refaire le café toutes les quelques heures. Une carafe de café thermique peut être un peu plus difficile à nettoyer. La plupart d'entre elles ne vont pas au lave-vaisselle et devront peut-être être nettoyées à l'aide de produits de nettoyage spéciaux. Vérifiez les recommandations du fabricant pour le nettoyage. L'autre inconvénient de la carafe de café thermique que certains citent est la tendance facile à vraiment gâcher le café. Si vous ne placez pas le dessus de la carafe avec précision, vous pouvez renverser du café fraîchement préparé sur votre comptoir. Puisque vous ne pouvez pas voir le café remplir le pot, vous ne pouvez pas savoir que vous avez mal placé le haut jusqu'à ce que vous ayez un énorme désordre à nettoyer. Tant que vous mettez délicatement le couvercle sur la carafe, cela ne devrait pas poser de problème. Alternativement, vous pouvez garder le couvercle fermé jusqu'à ce que le café soit fait, puis le mettre sur la carafe pour garder le café au chaud. Habituellement, le café dans une carafe thermique reste chaud pendant environ six à huit heures sans perdre sa saveur ou goût amer.